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  • Threads that are fixed on the loom prior to weaving. The warp threads make up the structure of a woven textile, into which the weft is inserted. In looms, warp threads run parallel and longitudinally.
  • The beam of a loom that lies furthest from the weaver, to which the warp threads are attached or loop around. On some looms the warp threads are wound around this beam when weaving commences, being gradually unwound as the weaving progresses. On most horizontal looms the warp beam is the beam furthest from the weaver.
  • A structure based on plain weave with multiple complementary warps that participate in the ground weave and two sets of wefts (ground/ foundation and inner). The inner wefts separate the warps that ride on the front of the fabric, making the pattern, versus those remaining on the back. Ancient Chinese jin textiles were woven using this structure.
  • See plain weave. Plain weave in which the warp yarns are significantly more numerous and spaced more closely than the weft yarns so that they completely hide the weft.

  • A weave in which the warp predominates on the surface of the textile. This is the default result on a loom that lacks a reed, in which (all other things being equal) the warps tend to be closely packed together. Warp-faced weaves, often decorated with warp ikat and warp patterning, predominate in the eastern parts of the Indonesian archipelago and Borneo.
  • See supplementary warp.
  • See ikat. In general, warp ikat is a warp-faced weave.
  • See resist-dyeing. A process in which groups of either the warp yarns, the weft yarns, or both are tightly wrapped at intervals and then dyed before weaving. The wrapped areas resist the dye. Often called ikat, from the Indonesian term.

  • A selvedge made by turning back warps at the ends of a textile. Found on some south American weavings and less common than weft selvedges.
  • A technique in which warps, which are normally continuous throughout a textile, are replaced by warps of another color.
  • See twining.
  • Mounting a warp on a loom, before weaving.
  • See resist-dyeing. A process in which areas of fabric are coated with hot wax before dyeing. The coated areas resist the dye. Designs can be drawn free-hand, or a metal stamp may be used to apply the wax. Often called batik, from the Indonesian term.

  • The interlacing of warps and wefts that repeats in regular manner and forms the foundation of a woven cloth. There are several basic types of interlacings such as plain weave, twill, and satin. Weave structure can be broadly divided into simple weave (having one set of warp and weft) and compound weave (having more than one set of warp and weft).
  • A process of making a textile by interlacing warps and wefts in a particular order with the aid of a device such as a loom.
  • Threads that are interlaced with warps during weaving, usually inserted at right angles to the warp.
  • See plain weave. Plain weave in which the weft yarns are significantly more numerous and hence more closely spaced than the warp yarns so that they completely hide the warp.

  • A woven structure, generally made on a loom with a reed, in which the weft is the main element visible on the surface, for example in bidak from Sumatra.
  • See supplementary-weft.
  • See ikat. In general, weft ikat is a weft-faced weave.